Friday, January 30, 2015

#AV122-Giving thanks - College, completion, encouragement – and Mom 11/24/2014

Another View #122                                                                                                  Peter Huidekoper, Jr.
Nov. 24, 2014
Giving thanks

College, completion, encouragement – and Mom

Before the year ends, facing my first Thanksgiving with Mom no longer here, a few words of thanks.

For dinner on Thanksgiving Day, I sat on her right—at one end of the dinner table—with brother Hank across from me on her left, our sisters at the other end near Dad.  She reached out her right hand, I took it in my left, and Dad said a Thanksgiving prayer.  Which often included a compliment to the cook, i.e. Mom … and a sweet, sentimental word or two about her.  After our collective “Amen,” we’d glance her way. Sure enough, she was teary-eyed—and smiling.

No hand to hold anymore. And yet I treasure a lifetime of Mom reaching out to hold my hand. In ways I know are rare. For which I never thanked her enough. “Thank you thank you” were the words that came so easily from my heart, when she could still hear us and approached her death last May.

Getting that college degree

Retention rate – or persistence rate?
At UC-D’s School of Public Affairs session on Higher Education Access & Success for Underrepresented Students in Colorado (9/29/14), Dr. Nate Easley, Executive Director of the Denver Scholarship Foundation, asked if we shouldn’t stress the persistence to get that degree—even if not at the college where we matriculate.
I have been fortunate to participate with the Colorado chapters of both College Track and College Summit the past few years, two programs supporting high school students—many of them the first in their family to head off to college.  A central goal is not only to see that 18-year-old get accepted and matriculate, but graduate.  Especially from a four-year program.   

Which brings me back to Mom.  Since it took me eight years.

Encouragement

The student and educator in me knows a young person needs encouragement.  A person who says: I’m with you, I know you can do it, don’t quit, keep working. I hope I have given some of that encouragement to the young people I have worked with during my life. 

Some—a few I have known the past few years tutoring College Track’s high school students in Aurora (several of whom I thank on these pages—see below)—seem to have a clarity of purpose—at age 16 or

Luis  -  junior
Thank you. As a freshman two years ago you struck me as either bored or indifferent.  A College Track tutor sent me a note: “He’s a smart kind but lacks a lot of motivation and confidence so celebrating small victories will be huge for him.” I wrote about you in AV#101 (using another name), questioning why a student as capable as you had spent that first year in a low-level English class, where your class, as I wrote, “was not asked to read one book together throughout the year.” 
But something began to click by sophomore year.  Now a junior—in AP Language—you continue to demonstrate a terrific mind and an exceptional willingness to wrestle with the topics you are asked to write about.  It is a real pleasure to go over a paper with you; you set a high standard for yourself, and it is a thrill to hear your English teacher this year has praised your good work.  Thank you for showing such curiosity, such a thirst to learn.  And, I must add—because you have shared with me what you find foolish, or wrong, about the education system—thank you for not becoming so cynical that you won’t try your best.


17—that I lost at one point during college.  Several of these juniors and seniors at Rangeview High  have teachers, parents, and the wonderful College Track staff encouraging them and cheering for them, and yet they give me the sense that they will do well with or without us.  They have an air about them that says: I’m grateful for the help, but actually, one way or another, I am going to get there. I will accomplish my goals. Nothing will stop me.

Perhaps I didn’t have that backbone, that focus, that drive. Or—as I lost my religious faith halfway through college, when I had thought I would enter the ministry—perhaps more was going on that sent me reeling for a few years, unsure what to believe. “No direction home,” as Bob Dylan put it. 

Leading to many years in and out of two colleges. Washing dishes, pounding nails, feeding cows and chickens—in three different countries.  Living out of the VW van one summer.  Reading and writing, but wandering … often determined NOT to go back to complete my degree.  I couldn’t see why.

Before our service for Mom this past summer I re-read her many many letters to me.  Her unfailing support—given in person, often in phone calls, but again and again in her letters—makes me eager to thank her once more, here.  And for a larger reason: to stress how much some of us need this kind of bucking up.  As our College Track seniors from Rangeview head off to college next fall (see Lena, below), as the College Summit seniors I worked with last summer do the same (see page 3), a few will likely need an adult or two who stands by them, through thick and thin, to buck them up too.
                                       
Excerpts from Mom’s letters
1968-69 (sophomore year):
“Hope the courses are getting caught up and that everything’s going well.”

Nov. 11, 1968
“Come home if you can before Turkey Day but only if you can do it without giving up work that’s essential. Mustn’t let the studies slip, Pete, even if the whole thing may sometimes seem a bit futile – remember you are building that base from which you can do more & more.”

Lena  -  senior
Thank you. As a freshman three years ago I was asked to work one-on-one with you.  You were in an extra English class to help you catch up, I guess, and/or because of the dyslexia.  I could see that reading itself wasn’t your way.  But you were so bright and eager, and you had already learned to listen to many books on tape, and thank you—sort of!—for retelling the plots of several Catherine Coulter novels you had nearly memorized.  That amazing memory of yours soon had you quoting lines from Romeo and Juliet that we read together.  Your mind worked so fast and your ramblings—excuse me, your monologues which went on at length!—were so entertaining and vivid; it grew clear to us that your potential made that low-level English class a poor fit.  I watched so much determination and commitment to the program when you were a sophomore and junior that I was not surprised to find you taking classes at CU-Boulder last summer.  But what a thrill to learn this fall that CU had accepted you for next year!  As did Regis University!  Thank you for your spunk and your independent spirit; thank you for your smile, your sense of humor—and your ever changing hair styles and color!  Thank you for your desire to GO PLACES (especially England), thank you for believing in yourself when there were doubters who could have stood in your way ….  And thanks to your mom, and grandma—picking you up at 7 p.m.—
for being there for you (reading this, perhaps you can see why I mention it). Don’t forget to thank them too!


Winter ’68-’69:  I had received incompletes from the fall semester and so had papers long overdue:
“… good luck on the writing during the next couple of weeks – & hope the next term will be almost as challenging as the last one.”

I re-read that a couple of times. Yes, she actually DID want me to be challenged!

In 1945 my father left high school early to join the war; my mom was earning her degree in art history at Vassar—in three years!—class of ’46. She was the one who saw the point—even when I could not.

April, 1969
“Think of your worries a lot & hope so much you can straighten the whole difficulty out & feel less confused. Just remember how important it is to get the foundation built before the house can go up!”

Philip Roth’s novel, Portnoy’s Complaint (published 1969), was part of the buzz that year. I doubt Mom read it, but she knew enough of its contents to toss this in at the end of one letter.
“Hope it all goes well for you, Peter – take each day at a time if you can & don’t worry about the day before or look to the future with too much concern- then it’ll be a little easier.
Love ya, honeybun – Mrs Portnoy”

March 1970 – I had (sort of) completed fall semester and made plans to study in a religious community in Switzerland for the spring term.  But—for the third straight term—I received incompletes and had papers to write in order to earn a grade.  My parents made me postpone my departure until I had turned in all my overdue essays for those fall classes.  Mom’s first letter to me over there:
“Am so happy for you too that you left after all the work was done – it was the right thing & you seemed like a new man that day when you left. What a lift to have everything fini!!”

I began to share doubts about my faith in letters home from Switzerland.  Mom replied:
“Feel this letter hasn’t really said anything – but hope you know thoughts go deeper than words – and sometimes it’s not easy to express everything that’s in the heart. Just know I’m praying that all will be just great for you, Pete … & I’m sure God is with you and helping you. Don’t let your doubts assail – God will prevail! All our love – Mum”

I came home, earned a 0 (yes, zero) for that semester abroad, and did not return to Trinity College.

Alina, Amado, Amy, Anallely, and Bella - seniors at Sheridan High and Abraham Lincoln High
Thank you for the chance to spend a weekend with you at the College Summit program at the University of Northern Colorado last June as you produced a draft of your college essay. Thanks for your trust, opening up to each other—and to this old guy, a stranger—about challenges you have faced. Thank you for the honesty in your voice—in our conversations, and in your writing—enabling you to reveal to college admissions officers a sense your strengths and your character.  I still see the images you created in your drafts: the commitment involved in being on that volleyball team; that moment sophomore year you began “to make decisions for myself, and not because others expected me to”; the confidence gained after that nerve-wracking experience in the state cheerleading competition; the impact you had on that scared boy in summer camp—who, in turn, gave you a lesson in courage; and the remarkable description of a day in your life that made me sad—no teenager should have to carry such a burden, I thought—and yet an account revealing such love and resilience that it left me so proud to know you ….  Thank you. You gave me—as the rest of the 42 DPS seniors gave all 10 writing coaches that weekend—a glimpse into your world, and it made all of us your cheerleaders.  We keep thinking of you, and we are pulling for you now.  After that letter of acceptance arrives this winter or spring, may the journey begin! 


Fall, 1971 – Mom writes of one of my sisters, finding it “difficult to help” a good friend of hers going through a rough time.  Mom went on:

“I think we all know that–people outside one’s own self just can’t quite get under one’s skin to know and thoroughly empathize. Feel that is true with ____ (her mom, struggling with mental health issues)—& also has been with you too–much as the desire to help is 100%!”

Empathy. There it is.  She did all she could to put herself in my shoes, and—as much as I could be a mystery to my parents—(ever seen a young man ever really open up to Mom and Dad?), she let me know I was loved and that my parents had not lost faith in me.

I am not proud of the young man who is on the other end of this correspondence. I must have done a pathetic amount of complaining in my letters and phone calls. (Perhaps the most frequent line in her letters from those days: “I hope you’ll be feeling better soon…”). 

But I am proud of—and deeply grateful to—my mom and dad for their patience, their ability to let me stumble on—less worried that I get a degree, than that I first get my feet on the ground. They never insisted that I go back to college until it made sense for me. Once I had a purpose. 

One more letter of encouragement –  from a grandmother

After three years away from college I returned, telling my family I could see myself teaching, which brought a beautiful (and nearly the last) letter from my dad’s mom–who passed away that winter:

“What good news your mother gave me this morning! Congratulations and may the days ahead at Trinity be happy ones. Everything seems to point to a teacher in the family and you will make a good one … I am happy for all your family, too, Pete. What a good Thanksgiving Day you will all celebrate. Pretend I am with you and in my heart I will be.”

At 23, we have little idea of the number of relatives paying attention to our trips and falls, hoping at some point we will figure out our path and get going.  Their cheerleading matters too.

I am glad Granny did not have to witness the next two years—as I dropped out again, another college…. But the point is – the support was always there.  Undeserved, but necessary.  There is no way I would have reached the finish line—four years after my classmates!—without it.
In short, few of us make it alone. 
    
To the 48 seniors in College Tack, and the many seniors College Summit is serving in Denver, we send our best wishes as you seek acceptance at the college of your choice.  May the fall of 2015 find you beginning a truly successful four-year college experience!

And should there be bumps on the road, and if it should take more than four years to get that degree, may you have a parent, a friend, or an angel to encourage you to hang in there and go forward!
If you are truly lucky, like me—once more, THANK YOU MOM!—you will have all three.


Another View, a newsletter by Peter Huidekoper, represents his own opinion and is not intended to represent the view of any organization he is associated with.     Comments are welcome. 303-757-1225 / peterhdkpr@gmail.com

AV#123-Redefining “local control” in 2015 – A hopeful look forward -12/18/2014

Another View #123                                                                                             Peter Huidekoper, Jr.
Dec. 18, 2014

Redefining “local control” in 2015 – A hopeful look forward

“The Phantom slowly, gravely, silently approached.…. Shrouded in a deep black garment, which concealed its head, its face, its form, and left nothing of it visible save an outstretched hand…. ‘You are about to show me shadows of the things … that will happen in the time before us,” Scrooge pursued. “Is that so, Spirit?’”
Hey, you say, “I don’t need this!!!”  No ghoulish ghost, please!  It’s bleak enough out there as we approach “the darkest evening of the year”!  Bring me light! Bring me good news!

At your service.

In the spirit of the holidays, a message of hope. So rest assured, I will not echo The Economist’s bleak assessment in its annual forecast of the year ahead. “Optimism is in short supply as thoughts turn to 2015….” (Daniel Franklin, Editor, “The World in 2015,” Dec. 2014).)

I will, however, cite one modestly hopeful passage from the magazine’s analysis:
“Democracy is the worst system of government except for the others: that is another of the torrent of Churchillian quotations you can expect to hear in the year ahead. He was right: democracy is still more flexible and fair than any alternative. But that is not an excuse for failing to tackle its imperfections.  And 2015 is a good year to start.”

Yes, “a good year to start” to tackle a fundamental imperfection in how our schools are governed. Which is nowhere near as democratic as we suggest by affirming, ad nauseam, our faith in “local control.”  In 2015 we will take steps so that our schools are governed by the people who make up the school community.  Which is not—in our big districts—the school board, or the central office.
So–Happy New Year!–here’s to the GOOD NEWS! Two changes ahead for public education in Colorado!
1.      We will re-examine and redefine local control

"The general assembly shall, by law, provide for organization of school districts of convenient size, in   each of which shall be established a board of education, to consist of three or more directors to be    elected by the qualified electors of the district. Said directors shall have control of instruction in the public schools of their respective districts." Constitution Article IX, §15. Effective Aug. 1, 1876.  (Bold mine.)
In 2015 Colorado citizens will realize that what was written in 1876 in the state constitution, 140 years before anyone imagined school districts with 86,000 students (a “convenient size”?) and 185 schools (Denver Public Schools- http://www.dpsk12.org/communications/facts.html), no longer addresses our current reality. 

We will take to heart Checker Finn’s words—and his recommendation in “American Education in 2014: Where We’ve Come, What’s Ahead”:

“The basic structural and governance arrangements of American public education are obsolete.  We have too many layers, too many veto points, too much institutional inertia.  Local control should be reinvented…. the vast majority of U.S. schools remain locked in structures that may have made sense around 1900, but not in 2014.” (Education Week, 8/27/14)
In 2015 Colorado policymakers, parents, and educators will start by acknowledging that “local control” might well apply to most of our districts (enrolling under 1,000 students), but not for most schools or students.[1]  “Local” means just that for our small rural schools.  However, in the 20 districts with between 10,000 and 87,000 students, we now see it is time for a redefinition. I suspect that those who wrote the 1876 Constitution would be shocked that anyone would call “local control” in DPS or Jeffco even remotely what they had in mind.

The Colorado Department of Education’s spreadsheet of school district size for 2013-14, Rural Definition Spreadsheet, includes data that shows, of 179 districts, we have:
106 - Under 1,000 – All small rural
41 - Under 5,000 (0ver 1,000) – 39 rural and 2 urban (Sheridan, Englewood)
11 - 10,000 (0ver 5,000)
158 school districts with fewer than 10,000 students
21 - 20 districts (and the Charter School Institute) with anywhere from 10,100 students (Westminster) to the 86,000 or so in Denver Public Schools* and Jefferson County**
*DPS reported 87,398 in 2013-14-http://www.dpsk12.org/communications/facts.html
 
Perhaps the size of school districts changed so little between 1876 and 1926 that the definition in our Constitution still applied back when Babe Ruth was setting homerun records.  But growth since then has created fundamentally different organizations; see chart on next page: “LOCAL CONTROL in Agate and Campo has a different meaning than in DPS and Jeffco. True?”
 
And with the passage of the charter school law in 1993 “control of instruction in the public schools of their respective districts” began to change.  That phrase from the Constitution had one meaning in 1994 for the Denver and Jefferson County school board before they opened their first charters (Clayton Charter in DPS; Center for Discovery Learning and Collegiate Charter Academy in Jeffco). 

It has a different meaning in 2014 with 46 charters in DPS and 17 in Jeffco—and 218 charters across the state, enrolling 11% of K-12 Colorado students (http://www.coloradoleague.org/?page=charterschoolfacts).  One example: School boards approve of a waiver request from state law in which they, in effect, outsource—or surrender—to the schools what has been the board’s responsibility: “To determine the educational programs to be carried on in the schools of the districts and to prescribe the textbooks for any course of instruction or study in such programs.” (22-32-109 – 1 (t)).  And this is just one of 23 “automatic waivers” granted most charters regarding Local Board Duties (22-32-109), Local Board Powers (22-32-110), the Teacher Employment Act (22-32-63)—and more. (See Addendum A

Obviously the local board in Denver, for example, is not in “control” of what takes place in its semi-autonomous 46 schools.  Many of us celebrate this change: no more “one size fits all,” and a healthy diversity in the curriculum and instructional practices. I have visited DPS schools that are part of the STRIVE, DSST, Highline Academy and Girls Athletic League networks, as well as Ace Community Challenge, Odyssey School, Rocky Mountain Prep, and Wyatt Academy.  “Local control,” if we wish to apply that term, is essentially in the hands of these schools—not 900 Grant Street.     (con’t on p. 4)    
                                                                                                                            

LOCAL CONTROL in Agate and Campo has a different meaning than in DPS and Jeffco. True?
Same words, different meanings

"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands….”

 

Words have different meanings in different contexts. “The People’s Republic of China” carries a different meaning of republic than it does for us.  China makes claims to “human rights” and “democracy,” but in our country we define those terms differently. (See “What China means by ‘democracy’” - http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/11/economist-explains-21)


District & # of students enrolled – 2013 figures
Agate 300
12


Does anyone doubt that “local control” in our small districts – left – with no more than three schools—has a different meaning than it does in our “big 12”—right?

Does anyone disagree that “local control” in the Douglas County School District, which enrolled about 12,000 students when I arrived in Colorado in 1990, has—or ought to have—a different meaning for today’s district, with over 66,000 students?

Greeley 6
20,450
Campo Re-6
44
Kim Reorganized 88
46
Mesa County Valley 51
21,894
Pritchett Re-3
53
Silverton 1
64
Academy 20
24,481
Liberty J-4
69
Plainview Re-2
72
Colorado Springs 11
28,404
Creede School District
80
Hinsdale County Re 1
80
Poudre R-1
28,439
Pawnee Re-12
88
Woodlin R-104
90
St Vrain Valley Re 1J
30,195
Karval Re-23
100
Aguilar Reorganized 6
107
Platte Valley Re-3
109
Boulder Valley Re 2
30,546
Arickaree R-2
114
Kit Carson R-1
114
Hi-Plains R-23
121
Adams-Arapahoe 28J
40,877
Lone Star 101
121
Vilas Re-5
127
Bethune R-5
132
Adams 12 Five Star Schools
42,230
Mountain Valley Re 1
135
Manzanola 3J
137
De Beque 49Jt
146
Cherry Creek 5
54,226
Walsh Re-1
156
Briggsdale Re-10
162
Deer Trail 26J
176
Genoa-Hugo C113
178
Cheyenne County Re-5
179
Eads Re-1
181
Douglas County Re1
66,230
Idalia Rj-3
182
Stratton R-4
186
Arriba-Flagler C-20
187
Moffat 2
189
Edison 54 Jt
191
Jefferson County R-1
_________________________
Denver Public Schools
85,983
La Veta Re-2
191
Plateau Re-5
196
Prairie Re-11
196
Primero Reorganized 2
196
86,043
Ouray R-1
197
Elbert 200
198
Granada Re-1
202

(con’t from p. 2)
Moreover, when we see that 11 of the 22 schools rated Distinguished on Denver’s School Performance Framework are charter schools, such local ownership—schools with their own governing boards—our school boards and our central offices have to accept that greater freedom can lead to great results.
   
In 2015, then, the size of our largest districts and the impact of “local control” by semi-autonomous schools will demand that we re-examine this term.  It cannot be seen as a magic talisman when its definition is so amorphous—or even (in a district with 86,000 students) an oxymoron. Especially, I would add, when “local control” is now used as a defense against appropriate measures of accountability.

2.    Just as the Copernican Revolution gave us a new way of seeing our solar system—and much more—we will realize that the K-12 education system does not revolve around the school district. 

A corollary: We will realize that the school—school leaders, teachers, and staff—matter most (not the superintendent, not the central office, and not the school board).
 
Re-interpreting local control for today’s realities will cause us to renounce a world view that put school districts at the center of the K-12 universe.  It took us 15 centuries to accept that our galaxy, to say nothing of the universe, does not revolve around the Earth.  Call it ignorance, or arrogance—either way, the establishment sure put up a fight (Galileo facing the Inquisition) when challenged to see the Earth was NOT the hub of the wheel.  In 2015 we will undergo our own Copernican reset.  No doubt the education establishment will resist, but we will place the school where it belongs; it will no longer be seen as just one of 9—or 179!—planets spinning around the source of light and life itself: the district. 

Views of the universe: Ptolemy vs. Copernicus
Ptolemy's model:
"Earth-centered," or "geocentric"
Ptolemy (100 A.D. – 168 A.D. ?)
Copernicus’ model:
"Sun-centered," or "heliocentric"
Copernicus (1473-1543)

When we place each school at the center of the K-12 universe, with parents in the orbit of Mercury, the school’s immediate community in the orbit of Venus, and the district out there—oh say 93,000,000 miles away—about where Earth revolves around our sun, with the state much farther out, with Jupiter and Saturn, and let’s put the federal government on the edge our galaxy, near poor old Pluto, 3.6 billion miles away from the school – then we will envision the K-12 system in a better way! (As for consultants and newsletter writers, given their uselessness, I hear there’s an even more distant region of space called the Oort cloud….)

Earlier this fall, when we read the following study, was anyone really surprised?

District Leadership -  "School Superintendents: Vital or Irrelevant?" (Sept. 17, 2014)
by Madeline Will

Superintendents have very little influence on student achievement in their districts, a report suggests.
The Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution examined the role of superintendents in Florida and North Carolina … The study found that hiring a new superintendent has little or no meaningful impact on student achievement, nor is there any association with superintendent turnover and improvements in student test scores.
It analyzed a decade's worth of 4th and 5th grade mathematics test scores in North Carolina, and found that superintendents accounted for only 0.3 percent of student differences in achievement—a statistically significant but small effect.

The same could be said, I believe, of the huge number of folks in the central office in Denver, Jeffco, and any of our 13 school districts serving over 20,000 students (page 3).  And ditto for school board members. This is not to dismiss the incredible commitment and hard work of most superintendents, board members, and district personnel. It is simply common sense, in my view. We can’t keep saying that good principals and teachers make the biggest difference in a school’s success for kids, and then pretend that decisions made some late night at a school board meeting deserve front page news.

In 2015, happily, as we rediscover that responsibility and authority for what happens in a school should largely be in the hands of those IN THE SCHOOL and IN THAT SCHOOL’S COMMUNITY (which is not the entire city of Denver or the 770 square miles of Jefferson County!), we will question the absurd amount of time spent by district leaders, staff, and board members preparing for and sitting in school board meetings, which spend an amazing amount of time on matters that have remarkably little consequence for the teaching and learning of our students.  It looks important.  Often it is not. 

Surely not as important as what takes place where parents send their kids, where students and teachers show up every day, where learning and attention to the individual boy or girl and kindness and laughter and guidance and encouragement do or do not happen.  The school.

“Ptolemy thought,” we read, “that all celestial objects — including the planets, Sun, Moon, and stars — orbited Earth. Earth, in the center of the universe, did not move at all.”

Kind of like the education system, at times.

Three cheers to 2015 – when we re-define “local control” in a way that moves our schools back to the center of K-12 education.    

Another View, a newsletter by Peter Huidekoper, represents his own opinion and is not intended to represent the view of any organization he is associated with.  Comments are welcome. 303-757-1225 / peterhdkpr@gmail.com

Addendum A

Waiver Request Guidance - Charter Schools (from CDE*)

Automatic Waivers are waivers from state statute and rule that do not require approval of the state board of education. These waivers have been identified over time as those that should be easier to receive either because they contradict the intent of the Charter School Act in terms of autonomies offered to charter schools, or have been requested so frequently that it is deemed more efficient for both the state and local boards.

CHARTER SCHOOL WAIVER REQUESTS
Last Modified: 12/14/2012

State Statute Citation     Description

22-9-106                             Local Board Duties Concerning Performance Evaluations
22-32-109(1)(b) Local Board Duties Concerning Competitive Bidding
22-32-109(1)(f)                  Local Board Duties Concerning Selection of Staff, and Pay
22-32-109(1)(n)(I)             Local Board Duties Concerning School Calendar
22-32-109(1)(n)(II)(A)       Determine teacher-pupil contact hours
22-32-109(1)(n)(II)(B)       Adopt district calendar

22-32-109(1)(t)                  Local Board Duties Concerning Textbooks and Curriculum – “To determine the educational program to be carried on in the schools of the district and to prescribe the textbooks for any course of instruction or study in such programs.”

22-32-126                          Employment and Authority of Principals
22-32-110(1)(h) Local Board Powers-Terminate employment of personnel
22-32-110(1)(i)                  Local Board Powers-Reimburse employees for expenses
22-32-110(1)(j)                  Local Board Powers-Procure life, health, or accident insurance
22-32-110(1)(k) Local Board Powers-Policies relating to in service training and official conduct
22-32-110(1)(ee)               Local Board Powers-Employ teachers' aides and other non-certificated personnel
22-33-104(4)                      Compulsory School Attendance-Attendance policies and excused absences
22-63-2011                        Teacher Employment Act - Compensation & Dismissal Act-Requirement to hold   
                                                    a certificate
22-63-202                          Teacher Employment Act - Contracts in writing, damage provision
22-63-203                          Teacher Employment Act-Requirements for probationary teacher, renewal &
                                                    nonrenewal
22-63-206                          Teacher Employment Act-Transfer of teachers
22-63-301                          Teacher Employment Act-Grounds for dismissal
22-63-302                          Teacher Employment Act-Procedures for dismissal of teachers
22-63-401                          Teacher Employment Act-Teachers subject to adopted salary schedule
22-63-402                          Teacher Employment Act-Certificate required to pay teachers
22-63-403                          Teacher Employment Act-Describes payment of salaries





[1] Our 15 largest school district, “with a total enrollment of 596,868, represent 68 percent of the total statewide enrollment. On the other end of the size spectrum, 136 of Colorado’s 185 local education agencies (excluding detention centers) have an enrollment of fewer than 2,000 students. These 136 agencies currently enroll 7.9 percent of the total number of students in the state.”  http://www.cde.state.co.us/communications/20140114pupilcount